This (non-)belonging can be social, political, economic, cultural and/or legal. At a time of globalisation, the examination of the construction of boundaries must take into account the multiplication of categorizations: related to class, sex/gender, and race/ethnicity/religion, and also, increasingly, to immigration and citizenship status. Hence the three streams of this axis: migration, pluralism, and citizenship. Privileging a comparative approach, we are interested in the treatment of migrants and non-citizens (e.g. stateless persons, refugees, “illegals”, immigrants, temporary workers). We study the discourses and policies of pluralism (e.g. multiculturalism). We investigate the definition of citizenship under the impact of new political imperatives (e.g. questions of security, “social cohesion”, human rights, the “equality between men and women”, and economic efficiency).
This thematic research focus studies the construction of boundaries between those who are said to belong to the national society and those who don’t.